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Clinical Pharmacology

Brief History of the Department

The Department of Clinical Pharmacology commenced operations in the late 1970s as a semi-autonomous unit of the University of Ibadan Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics and Specialty of Internal Medicine under the leadership of Emeritus Professor L. A. Salako. The then ‘amorphous’ unit was a hob of research activities, initially focussed on cardio-renal pharmacology until emphasis shifted to malaria chemotherapy in the 1980s.

In the 1970s and 1980s training had partly involved the use of facilities at a few well-resourced institutions in Europe partly due to the lack of a clinical pharmacology laboratory. Indeed, Professor O. Walker and Professor A. Sowunmi, both former Head of the Department, had the benefit of some training in Karolinska Institute in Sweden and in the University of Oxford, in UK, respectively. The department continues to maintain symbiotic relationship with the department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics of the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan.

Indeed, headship of the department of Clinical Pharmacology had always largely been determined by the happenings in the College of Medicine, department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. So far, the Department had contributed or solely trained several fellows some of whom currently occupy positions as consultants in the department. At the present the department has four consultants namely Prof. A. Sowunmi, Prof. Catherine O. Falade, Prof. F. A. Fehintola and Dr. Aduragbenro Deborah A. Adedapo. Also six residents at various stages are undergoing residency programme in this subspecialty of Clinical Pharmacology.

 

A COMPREHENSIVE LIST OF THE HEADS OF DEPARTMENT TO DATE

S/N

List of Head of Department

Period

  1.  

Prof. L. A. Salako

1982 - 1991

  1.  

Prof O. Walker

April, 1991 – Feb, 1994

  1.  

Prof. A. Sowunmi

Feb,1994 – Feb, 1998

  1.  

Prof. A. Sowunmi

Mar, 1998 – Feb, 2001

  1.  

Dr. Catherine. O. Falade

Feb, 2004 - Aug, 2006

  1.  

Prof. A. Sowunmi

Aug, 2006 – Aug, 2010

  1.  

Prof. Catherine. O. Falade

Aug, 2010 - Feb, 2016

  1.  

Prof. F. A. Fehintola

Feb, 2016 till date

 

Outstanding achievements recorded by the department over the years

The department has recorded numerous achievements, a few of which are listed below.

  • Chloroquine pruritus was a common adverse drug effect in the days of extensive use of the drug in the treatment of malaria. The first insight into the pathogenesis of chloroquine pruritus was worked out at the department by Prof Olatunde in the late 70’s. This seminal work led to a rise in research into this once mysterious drug effect nationally and internationally. The publication remains a landmark in the annals of World Health Organization (WHO). This in fact contributed largely to the recognition and collaborations by the WHO which eventually resulted in funded studies on malaria, the most prevalent disease in Nigeria.
  • At the onset of decline in the efficacy of chloroquine in the late 80’s and the 90’s, there was an international effort to search for agents that could reverse resistance to the drug in humans. A similar feat had been achieved in vitro for the first time in 1994 at the laboratories of the malaria research group Ibadan. In 1997, in a paper published in 1997, Sowunmi reported the reversal of chloroquine resistance in humans by chlorpheniramine. This work gained international recognition as the first and led to similar successes in other parts of the World. It was as a result of other studies by Sowunmi et al on reversal of CQ resistance by chlorpheniramine that chlorpheniramine was listed in the Word drug reference, Martindale, as an agent that could be used to reverse malaria parasite resistance to chloroquine in vivo.
  • Between 2001 and 2002, Dr Falade led a rural antimalarial research that showed for the first time in the World that Chlorpheniramine could reverse falciparum resistance to amodiaquine.
  • Dr F.A Fehintola in 2001 showed that antibacterial agent like Cotrimoxazole, has antimalarial and might have constituted a form combination therapy for malaria in the management of children with malaria on a background of prevalent upper respiratory tract infections. In conjunction with local and International Scholars, he is providing direction in area of arthmisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and anti-retro viral (ART) drug interaction

Local and International Collaborations

  • State Ministry of Health
  • Southwest branch of NAFDAC
  • World Health Organization
  • State University of New York at Bufallo (SUNY – B)USA

Services rendered by the department

Location

Medical Outpatient(MOP)

 

Number of Consultants

Four, with different areas of interest

 

Clinics

General and specialty clinics

   1.Hypertension clinic on Tuesday

   2.Adverse drug reaction clinic on Wednesday 

   3.General Medical Out-Patient Clinic on Thursday

   4.Malaria clinic on Mondays - Fridays

 

Other services

  1. Attending /Routine Screening

In patient care

The department has an eight-bed ward conducting research

Main area of focus

Phase III clinical trials, especially of antimalarial therapies.

 

Residency training

The department is accredited for residency training in Clinical pharmacology by the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria and The West African College of Physicians. Residents pass primary examination in Internal Medicine;

Pre-Part I

Residents’ rotation during the pre-part I postings is mainly undertaken (and organized) in the Department of Medicine.

Rotation through core specialties of: Neurology, Cardiology, Gastroenterology and liver diseases, endocrinology, dermatology, Respiratory Medicine.

Other rotations: Psychiatry, Haematology, Radiology, Medical Microbiology, Chemical Pathology, emergency/ICU.

 

Post-part I

Residents continue to attend clinical meetings like Charts review, grand round, and postgraduate seminars while paying special attention to the requirements of the subspecialty of C|PT as listed below.  In addition, residents are encouraged to register for MSc Pharmacology programme, hence unfettered access to facilities within (mainly) our University of Ibadan.

  • Resident is attached to, and actively participates in on-going clinical drug trials in the department (continuously for 1 year and subsequently on an ad-hoc basis)
  • Residents attend the Drug and Therapeutics Committee (DTC) meetings (throughout the post-part 1 stage)
  • Residents attend the Pharmacovigilance Committee meetings (throughout the post-part 1 stage)
  • Residents spend 4 weeks at Drug manufacturing plat
  • A six-month posting (rotation) of general medicine during the 2nd year post-part 1.  Subsequently, residents are encouraged to participate in activities of any sub-specialty of choice in addition to the mandatory 6 months’ rotation in selected subspecialties.
  • Residents undergo tutelage at our University of Ibadan animal facility
  • Residents provide tutorials for MBBS/BDS students of our University of Ibadan (throughout post-part 1 stage).

Other Unit/Departmental activities

Drug review/Case Presentation – provides an avenue for in-depth discussion on selected drug and/or drug management of an identified patient.  Discussions usually include: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug toxicity, adverse drug reactions, clinically important drug interactions relating to the selected drug(s) etc.  Invitations are usually extended to Hospital Pharmacist with a view to generating robust discussion and improve patient care and residents’ training.

  • Wednesday, 7:30am
  • Friday, 7:30am
  • Clinical Pharmacology Seminar – this weekly (Monday, 3pm) seminar was established to discuss topical issues relating to emergency medicine, toxicology, clinical drug trials, and journal reviews etc.  It also offers an opportunity for manuscript drafting/writing/critiquing and other sundry research-related activities.

Other unit/Departmental facilities (Primary and Secondary)

  • Clinical Research Room – CI3rd Clinical Pharmacology ward
  • Nine (9) beds
  • A side laboratory – equipped with microscopes, centrifuges, deep freezers, pH meter, water-bath
  • Internet-enabled desktop for storage and sourcing drug-related data
  • Drug Information Centre – located in the Pharmacy Department of the Hospital
  • HPLC and animal experimental facility – professor grace O. Gbotosho’s laboratory located in the Institute for Advanced Medical Research & Training, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan.  Residents are also exposed to animal experimentation in the Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Univesity of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

 

Vision

To be the flagship tertiary health care institution in the West Africa sub-region, offering world-class training, research and services.

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